Effects of Internship Satisfaction, Subjective Norms, and Self-Efficacy on Student Intern’s Job Application Intention

Ibnu Handono Putra, Debora Eflina Purba


Internship programs can serve as recruitment and selection strategies that facilitate data collection on the abilities of potential employees to manage their daily work duties. This study aims to examine factors that may influence a student intern’s intentions to apply to convert the internship into a permanent employee position at the same company after graduating from university. The study is grounded in the theory of planned behavior to probe whether internship satisfaction, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are predictors of the intentions of student interns to apply for jobs at companies that offer internship programs. Data collected from 261 Indonesian university students demonstrated that internship satisfaction and subjective norms positively and significantly predicted the intentions of student interns to apply to convert their internships into permanent jobs at the same company. However, self-efficacy did not predict such conversion intentions. Finally, the practical implications of these outcomes are discussed, and directions for prospective research are suggested.



Internship satisfaction, subjective norms, self-efficacy, student interns’ intention to convert

Full Text:



Abbasi, M. S., Tarhini, A., Elyas, T., & Shah, F. (2015). Impact of individualism and collectivism over the individual’s technology acceptance behavior. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(6), 747-768. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEIM-12-2014-0124

Ahmad, H., Ahmad, K., & Shah, I. A. (2010). Relationship between job satisfaction, job performance attitude toward work and organizational commitment. European Journal of Social Sciences, 18(2), 257-267.

Ajzen I. (1985) From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In: Kuhl J., Beckmann J. (Eds.), Action Control. SSSP Springer Series in Social Psychology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.100 7/978-3-642-69746-3_2

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. https://doi.org/1 0.1080/08870446.2011.613995

Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Arnold, J., Loan-Clarke, J., Coombs, C., Wilkinson, A., Park, J., & Preston, D. (2006). How well can the theory of planned behavior account for occupational intentions? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(3), 374-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2006.07.006

Bandura, A. (2010). Self‐efficacy. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1-3. https://doi.o rg/10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0836

Betz, N. E., & Klein, K. L. (1996). Relationships among measures of career self-efficacy, generalized self-efficacy, and global self-esteem. Journal of Career Assessment, 4(3), 285-298.

Brief, A. P., & Roberson, L. (1989). Job attitude organization: An exploratory study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19(9), 717-727.

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216. https://doi.org/1 0.1177/135910457000100301

Broadhead-Fearn, D., & White, K. M. (2006). The role of self-efficacy in predicting rule-following behaviors in shelters for homeless youth: A test of the theory of planned behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146(3), 307-325.

D'abate, C. P., Youndt, M. A., & Wenzel, K. E. (2009). Making the most of an internship: An empirical study of internship satisfaction. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(4), 527-539. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.8.4.zqr527

Dabke, D. (2015). Determinants of internship satisfaction in management education students. International Journal of Management in Education, 9(4), 379-395. https://doi.org/1 0.1504/IJMIE.2015.072093

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175-191. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146

Fischer, R., Karl, J. A., & Fischer, M. V. (2019). Norms across cultures: A cross-cultural meta-analysis of norms effects in the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 50(10), 1112-1126. https://doi.or g/10.1177/0022022119846409

Gault, J., Redington, J., & Schlager, T. (2000). Undergraduate business internships and career success: are they related? Journal of Marketing Education, 22(1), 45-53. https://doi.org/10. 1177/0273475300221006

Hatta, M., & Riduan, A. (2017). Niat mahasiswa akuntansi berkarir sebagai akuntan di luar negeri: Pengujian theory of planned behavior. [Intention to work as overseas accountant: A test of theory of planned behavior]. Jurnal Akuntansi, 7(2), 1-18. https://doi.org/ 10.33369/j.akuntansi.7.2.1-18.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 2307-0919.

Hormes, J. M., Rozin, P., Green, M. C., & Fincher, K. (2013). Reading a book can change your mind, but only some changes last for a year: food attitude changes in readers of The Omnivore's Dilemma. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 778. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.20 13.00778.

Hu, Y., & Gan, Y. (2011). Future-oriented coping and job hunting among college students. The Psychological Record, 61(2), 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395759

Hurst, J. L., Good, L. K., & Gardner, P. (2012). Conversion intentions of interns: what are the motivating factors? Education + Training, 54(6), 504-522. https://doi.org/10.1108/00 400911211254280.

Huseini, N. E. (2014). Faktor-faktor yang Memengaruhi Intensi Karyawan Magang Menjadi Karyawan Tetap [Factors that influences intern employees’ intention to be permanent employees] (Undergraduate thesis, Universitas Indonesia. Depok, Indonesia). Retrived from http://lib.ui.ac.id/detail?id=20387304&lokasi=lokal.

Koo, G. Y., Diacin, M. J., Khojasteh, J., & Dixon, A. W. (2016). Effects of internship satisfaction on the pursuit of employment in sport management. Sport Management Education Journal, 10(1), 29-42. https://doi.org/10.1123/SMEJ.2014-0008

Lee, C., & Green, R. T. (1991). Cross-cultural examination of the Fishbein behavioral intentions model. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(2), 289-305. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490304

Lee, C., & Wan, G. (2010). Including subjective norm and technology trust in the technology acceptance model: a case of e-ticketing in China. ACM SIGMIS Database: the DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 41(4), 40-51. https://doi.org/10.1145/ 189963 9.1899642

Lyons, B. J., Wessel, J. L., Tai, Y. C., & Ryan, A. M. (2014). Strategies of job seekers related to age-related stereotypes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(8), 1009-1027. https://doi. org/10.1108/JMP-03-2013-0078

McDermott, M. S., Oliver, M., Svenson, A., Simnadis, T., Beck, E. J., Coltman, T,... & Sharma, R. (2015). The theory of planned behavior and discrete food choices: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 162. https://doi.org/1 0.1186/s12966-015-0324-z

McManus, A. & Feinstein, A.H. (2008). Internships and occupational socialization: What are students learning? Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, 35, 128–137.

Ng, K. M., Wang, C., Kim, D. H., & Bodenhorn, N. (2010). Factor structure analysis of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale on international students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70(4), 695-709.

Paquin, R. S., & Keating, D. M. (2017). Fitting identity in the reasoned action framework: A meta-analysis and model comparison. The Journal of Social Psychology, 157(1), 47-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2016.115 2217

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Richardson, S. (2008). Undergraduate tourism and hospitality students' attitudes toward a career in the industry: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 8(1), 23-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/15 313220802410112

Rose, P. S. (2013). Factors predicting the conversion of interns into regular employees: an empirical study of business internships in China. (Doctoral dissertation, Curtin University). http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/26 12

Sackett, P. R., Zedeck, S., & Fogli, L. (1988). Relations between measures of typical and maximum job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3), 482. https://doi.org/10.10 37/0021-9010.73.3.482

Scholz, U., Doña, B. G., Sud, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is general self efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18(3), 242. https://doi.org/10.1 027/1015-5759.18.3.242

Shook, C. L., & Bratianu, C. (2010). Entrepreneurial intent in a transitional economy: An application of the theory of planned behavior to Romanian students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(3), 231-247.

Song, Z., & Chathoth, P. K. (2010). An interactional approach to organizations’ success in socializing their intern newcomers: The role of general efikasi diri and organizational socialization inventory. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 34(3), 364-387. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348009350648

Super, D. E., & Hall, D. T. (1978). Career development: Exploration and planning. Annual Review of Psychology, 29(1), 333-372. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.29.020178. 002001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7454/proust.v3i2.92


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Ibnu Handono Putra, Debora Eflina Purba

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

PRoUSt secretariat:

Building B 1st Floor, Faculty of Psycology, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.

Copyright © 2019 Psychological Research on Urban Society (PRoUSt).

2615-8582 (online), 2620-3960 (print).